Basuki Mawa Bea" are the words emblazoning the emblem of East
Java. Translated. they mean that achievments are only won through
sacrifice. This is certainly an appropriate motto, especially for
the people of Surabaya. the 'City of Heroes'. whose history of struggle
against foreign invaders is well known.
Surabaya is the commercial and administrative capital of East Java,
a thriving business and industrial centre and the province's main
port. Second only to Jakarta in size and importance, the city has
a population of around 2.5 million residents. From the port area
of Tanjung Perak ferries leave regularly for Madura, and air services
to and from Surabaya's Juanda Airport connect the city with Jakarta,
Yogyakarta, Bali and other parts of Indonesia.
Surabaya is a progressive capital
undergoing rapid change. Former negative reports about the city
from foreign visitors are thus clearly unwarranted today. In fact,
Surabaya now enjoys the reputation as being the cleanest city
in Indonesia, equipped with every modern facility and offering
a standard of accommodation to suit every taste and budget. Places
of interest for the tourist require Kalimas harbour and Kampung
Arab in the old part of town, the Mpu Tantular Museum, as well
as one of the largest zoos in south east Asia.
Surabaya is located at the centre
of the northern coast of East Java Province, bounded to the north
and east by the Java sea, the district of Gresik in the west,
and by the district of the Sidoarjo in the south. The topography
is mainly flat at about 3-6m above sea level, but in the west,
two low ridges from west to east have an elevation of about 20-30m
above sea level. The lower hill slopes have tended to be occupied
by low income groups because of the low cost of site development.
The high ground has become popular for high income group settlement,
now that there are good access road and water supply.
The tropical climate has two main
identifiable seasons. The dry season generally lasts from May
to October, and the wet or rainy season from November up to April.
The heaviest rains normally occur between December and January.
wind velocity normally ranes from 3 to 20 knots and is relatively
constant throughout the year. The mean annual rainfall is 1,321
mm, and the highest monthly mean rainfall is about 260 mm, usually
in January. The lowest temperature, usually in February, is about
25.5 celcius and the highest temperature is 33.0 celcius in October.
The average annual temperature is 27.8 celcius.
Surabayas dominant roles, both national
and regional, have changed little since it emerged as a major
administrative and trading centre of the East Indies in the early
18th century. The development of urban Surabaya since this time
has therefore been related to study growth to meet increasing
demand, rather than any change in role or function. Since the
governments 1960s city policy, Surabaya has functioned as an industrial, commercial, maritime, education and government
city. This multi-function policy has required Surabaya to provide
land for industrial areas and infrastructure support facilities.
Commercial trading in Surabaya has
an important role for the development of Eastern Indonesia, and
especially for East Java. The primary trade activities covering
the large area from the port in the north to the city center is
wholesale trading of products.